Formation of Urdu Poetry

Ahmad

?A?mad (أحمد also Ahmed, or with ch and/or t in place of h/d respectively), is the transliteration of an Arabic given name that comes from the Arabic Triconsonantal root of ?-M-D حمد ("praise"), meaning "highly praised" implying "one who constantly thanks God". One of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's many names is Ahmad, the name 'Muhammad' pre-dating 'Ahmad'; a related name is 'Mahmood'. The context by which "Ahmad" is referred to as "praised", can at times be mistaken, it is because the Prophet Muhammad was so highly regarded in Islam that the name "Ahmad" has come to mean "highly praised".

 
 

[[Shayari Bait (بیت)

Bait-ul-Ghazal (بیت الغزل)

In Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi, Shaayaree, or poetry, essentially comprises couplet, or Sher. The plural for Sher is Ashaar. The form ghazal is a collection of mulitiple ashaar - each of which should convey a complete thought without any reference to other shayari of the same ghazal. In fact, though belonging to the same ghazal, the different ashaar therein can have completely different meaning and tone relative to one another.
 

Beher (بحر)

Beher in Urdu poetry is the meter of a sher (a form of poetry in Urdu, essentially a couplet). It can be considered as the length of the sher. Both the lines in the sher, the couplet, must be of same beher. And all the shers in one ghazal (a poetic form consisting of couplets which share a rhyme and a refrain) must be of the same beher. There are 19 kinds of beher. However, generally beher is categorized in three classes: Short, medium, long, depending upon the length of the misra (first line of the sher)

For a ghazal, all the shers in the ghazal should be of the same of beher. The example of this is this ghazal of Faiz Ahmed Faiz. Notice the length and meter of the ashaars in this ghazal: it is same throughout.

 

shaiKh saahab se rasm-o-raah na kii

shukr hai zindagii tabaah na kii

 

tujh ko dekhaa to ser-e-chashm hue

tujh ko chaahaa to aur chaah na kii

 

tere dast-e-sitam kaa ajz nahii.n

dil hii kaafir thaa jis ne aah na kii

 

the shab-e-hijr kaam aur bahut

ham ne fikr-e-dil-e-tabaah na kii

 

kaun qaatil bachaa hai shahar me.n 'Faiz'

jis se yaaro.n ne rasm-o-raah na kii

 
 

Diwan (دیوان)

The English usage of the phrase Divan Poetry comes from the Persian word diwan ( ?????), which originally designated a list or register.[1] The Persian word derived from the Persian dibir meaning writer or scribe. Diwan was also borrowed into Armenian, Arabic and Turkish.[2] In Persian, Turkish and other languages the term diwan came to mean a collection of poems by a single author, as in selected works, or the whole body of work of a poet. Thus Diwan-e Mir would be the Collected works of Mir Taqi Mir and so on. The first use of the term in this sense is attributed to Rudaki.[citation needed]

The term divan was used in titles of poetic works in French, beginning in 1697,[1] but was a rare and didactic usage, though one that was revived by its famous appearance in Goethe's West-Östlicher Divan (Poems of West and East), a work published in 1819 that reflected the poet's abiding interest in Middle Eastern and specifically Persian literature..[citation needed]

 

This word has also been applied in a similar way to collections of Hebrew poetry and to poetry of al-Andalus..[citation needed]

 
 

Husn-E-Matla (حسنِ مطلع)

In Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi, Shaayaree, or poetry, essentially comprises couplet, or Sher. The plural for Sher is Ashaar. The form ghazal is a collection of mulitiple ashaar - each of which should convey a complete thought without any reference to other shayari of the same ghazal. In fact, though belonging to the same ghazal, the different ashaar therein can have completely different meaning and tone relative to one another.

 
 

Kalam (کلام)

Kalam (Arabic: ?????) in Arabic means "talk". In Persian and Urdu poetry, Kalam refers to total poetic work of a poet.

 
 

Kulyat (کلیات)

Kulyat (Persian: ?????) is a collection poetry of a poet. The Kulyat of Urdu poets are published.

 
 

Maqta (مقطع)

The maqta is the last sher (couplet) of a ghazal, a collection of Urdu poems, in which the poet's takhallus, or pen name, is employed, often in very creative ways

 

Example with Takhallus

Meer in neem baaz aankhon mein

Saari masti sharaab ki see hai

(Poet : Meer Taqi Meer)

 
 

Matla (مطلع)

The Matla (Arabic: ????) is the first sher, or couplet, of a ghazal, a collection of poems in Urdu poetry. It is possible, although extremely rare, for there to be more than one matla in a ghazal; in this case the second is referred to as matla-e-sani, literally the second matla.

 
 

Mavra (ماوراء)

Mavra is a collection of poems written in the poetic style free verse by the Urdu poet Noon Meem Rashid.

 
 

Misra (مصرع)

In Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi, Shaayaree, or poetry, essentially comprises couplet, or Sher. The plural for Sher is Ashaar. The form ghazal is a collection of mulitiple ashaar - each of which should convey a complete thought without any reference to other shayari of the same ghazal. In fact, though belonging to the same ghazal, the different ashaar therein can have completely different meaning and tone relative to one another.

 
 

Mushaira (مشاعرہ)

Mushaira (Urdu: ??????, mu???ira) is a poetic symposium. Its a term in Urdu used to describe an event (called mehfil, ????) where poets gather to perform their works. A mushaira is a beloved part of the culture of Pakistan and North India, and it is greatly admired by participants as a forum for free self-expression.

 

A mushaira can take a number of forms. Traditionally, the ghazal is the specific poetic form employed, either recited or sung, but other forms of poetry, recitation and song may be allowed too. The poetry is often humorous in nature. Usually, invited guest poets will be seated behind a long table at the front of the room, with often the most admired of them seated in the centre. Usually one person will host the mushaira, inviting each poet to come and perform. However, the form is relatively free, and anyone can come forward and ask to perform. The host usually lets the most admired poet present be the last to perform. The audience often interacts with the poets, most often with encouraging calls of va at the end of appreciated couplets. If a couplet is particularly appreciated, there may be calls for the poet to repeat it, or the audience might spontaneously repeat it themselves. This latter is most often done when a poet's first couplet is appreciated. Sometimes a mushaira is more competitive. The Tarahi Mushaira is a particular form where a misra is given, and poets compose their ghazals using that misra and the behar (rhythmic metre) of the misra.

 
 

Qaafiyaa (قافیہ)

Qaafiyaa is a device employed in a form of Urdu poetry known as Ghazal (a poetic form consisting of couplets which share a rhyme and a refrain). The Qaafiyaa is the rhyming pattern of words that must directly proceed the Ghazal's Radif. The example below is of a Ghazal below by Daag Dehelvi.

 

In this case the Qaafiyaa is the following pattern of words: jalwa-gaah, nigaah, raah, haale-tabaah and aah.

 

aafat kii shoKhiyaa.N hai.n tumhaarii nigaah mein

mehashar ke fitane khelate hai.n jalwa-gaah mein

 

wo dushmanii se dekhate hai.n dekhate to hain

mai.n shaad huu.N ke huu.N to kisii kii nigaah mein

 

aatii baat baat mujhe yaad baar baar

kahataa huu.N dau.D dau.D ke qaasid se raah mein

 

is taubaah par hai naaz mujhe zaahid is qadar

jo TuuT kar shariik huu.N haal-e-tabaah mein

 

mushtaaq is adaa ke bahot dard-ma.nd the

ae DaaG tum to baiTh gaye ek aah mein

 

The origin of "Qaafiyaa" is Arabic; it is the rhyming of the ends of the words. "Ghazal" is a form of romantic Arabic poetry. "Ghazal" is essentially "flirting" and quite often playful poetry.

 
 

Radif (ردیف)

Radif (Arabic: ????) is a rule in Persian, Turkic, and Urdu poetry which states that, in the form of poetry known as a Ghazal, the second line of all the couplets (bayts or Shers) must end with the same word/s. This repeating of common words is the "Radif" of the Ghazal. It is proceeded by a Qaafiyaa, which is a repeating pattern of words.

 

The following is an example of a Ghazal by Daag Dehelvi. In this example the Radif is shein. The Qaafiyaa is the following pattern of words: Jalwa-gaah, nigaah, raah, haale-tabaah and aah.

 

aafat kii shoKhiyaa.N hai.n tumhaarii nigaah mein

mehashar ke fitane khelate hai.n jalwa-gaah mein

 

wo dushmanii se dekhate hai.n dekhate to hain

mai.n shaad huu.N ke huu.N to kisii kii nigaah mein

 

aatii baat baat mujhe yaad baar baar

kahataa huu.N dau.D dau.D ke qaasid se raah mein

 

is taubaah par hai naaz mujhe zaahid is qadar

jo TuuT kar shariik huu.N haal-e-tabaah mein

 

mushtaaq is adaa ke bahot dard-ma.nd the

ae DaaG tum to baiTh gaye ek aah mein

 
 

Sher (???)

In Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi, Shaayaree, or poetry, essentially comprises couplet, or Sher. The plural for Sher is Ashaar. The form ghazal is a collection of mulitiple ashaar - each of which should convey a complete thought without any reference to other shayari of the same ghazal. In fact, though belonging to the same ghazal, the different ashaar therein can have completely different meaning and tone relative to one another.

 
 

Shayar (شاعر)

A Shayar is a poet who composes Sher in the Urdu language. Shayar is not restricted to write only in Urdu, but can write in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian. Commonly, a Shayar is someone who writes Ghazals, Nazms using the Urdu language. One doesn't need to know how to write in Urdu in order to write a Ghazal. Amir Khusro is considered to be one of the foremost Shayars of the world, who existed during 1253-1325 and wrote in Persian. Mirza Ghalib is considered the ultimate authority in Urdu Poetry. He lived in Delhi and died in 1869.

 
 

Shayari (شاعری)

In Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi, Shaayaree, or poetry, essentially comprises couplet, or Sher. The plural for Sher is Ashaar. The form ghazal is a collection of mulitiple ashaar - each of which should convey a complete thought without any reference to other shayari of the same ghazal. In fact, though belonging to the same ghazal, the different ashaar therein can have completely different meaning and tone relative to one another.

 
 

Tah-Tul-Lafz (تحت اللفظ)

In Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi, Shaayaree, or poetry, essentially comprises couplet, or Sher. The plural for Sher is Ashaar. The form ghazal is a collection of mulitiple ashaar - each of which should convey a complete thought without any reference to other shayari of the same ghazal. In fact, though belonging to the same ghazal, the different ashaar therein can have completely different meaning and tone relative to one another.

 
 

Takhallus (تخلص)

Pen names (Takhallus)

In the Urdu poetic tradition, most poets use a pen name called the takhallus. This can be either a part of a poet's given name or something else adopted as an identity. The traditional convention in identifying Urdu poets is to mention the takhallus at the end of the name. Thus Ghalib, whose official name and title was Mirza Asadullah Beg Khan, is referred to formally as Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib, or in common parlance as just Mirza Ghalib. Because the takhallus can be a part of their actual name, some poets end up having that part of their name repeated, such as Faiz Ahmad Faiz.

The word takhallus is derived from Arabic, meaning "ending". This is because in the ghazal form, the poet would usually incorporate his or her pen name into the final couplet (maqta) of each poem as a type of 'signature'.

 
 

Tarannum (ترنم)

In Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi, Shaayaree, or poetry, essentially comprises couplet, or Sher. The plural for Sher is Ashaar. The form ghazal is a collection of mulitiple ashaar - each of which should convey a complete thought without any reference to other shayari of the same ghazal. In fact, though belonging to the same ghazal, the different ashaar therein can have completely different meaning and tone relative to one another.

 
 

Triveni (تریوینی)

Triveni is a form of Hindi/Urdu poetry initiated by the poet Gulzar. Unlike sher, a triveni consists of three misras. The first two are complete in themselves, but the addition of the third misra gives a new dimension all together.

 

A beautiful example of Gulzar's Triveni:

 

ज़ुल्फ़ में यूँ चमक रही है बूँद

जैसे बेरी में तनहा एक जुगनू

क्या बुरा है जो छत टपकती है

 

Transliteration

 

Zulf mein yun chamak rahi hai boond,

Jaise beree mein tanhaa ik jugnoo

kyaa buraa hai jo chhat tapaktee hai !!

 

Translation

 

The (water) glitters so in (your) hair

As a lone firefly in (a) bush

Whats so bad if the roof drips